Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) describes a set of problems in which the bowel gets inflamed. It has long been allowed as an autoimmune disease, but a study suggests that chronic inflammation is not due to the body’s exempt system. Instead, it is the result of the immune system attacking the harmless virus, bacteria, or food in the gut, causing inflammation that leads to intestinal damage. Also, when doctors talk about inflammatory bowel disease they often refer to people with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. Both of these conditions can cause inflammation of the colon and rectum (large intestines or large intestines) with similar symptoms, such as bloody diarrhea, etc.
Types of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
Crohn’s disease: In Crohn’s disease, inflammation can happen anywhere within the intestinal region, from the mouth to the anus. It causes pain and inflammation in the digestive tract. Thus, it can affect any part starting from the mouth to the anus. Usually, it affects the small intestine or the upper part of the large intestine.
Ulcerative colitis: Like Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis also involves inflammation of the intestinal tract. In this case, however, only the large intestine, or colon, is affected. It causes inflammation and ulcers (ulcers) in the large intestine (colon and part).
Microscopic colitis: Causes intestinal inflammation that can only be detected by a microscope.
Symptoms of Crohn’s disease:
The symptoms of Crohn’s disease vary, depending on the specific organ or components of the gastrointestinal tract (GI) involved. Common symptoms include:
- Abdominal cramps
- Upcoming abdominal pain should go away
- Blood in your chair
- Less food
- Unintended weight loss
Other very common symptoms may include fever, joint pain, eye problems, skin problems, and feeling tired (called fatigue). Symptoms of Crohn’s disease can be severe. They can start suddenly or slowly.
Symptoms of ulcerative colitis:
The symptoms of ulcerative colitis vary. Symptoms depend on the seriousness of your case and how much your large intestines are affected. Common symptoms include:
- Stomach pain or bleeding
- Frequent bowel movements
- Feeling an urgent need for bowel movements
- Blood on the chair
- Constipation and pain
- A strong feeling that you need to move the abdomen, but you can do it (called tenesmus)
- Left side abdominal pain
- Unintended weight loss
For most people with ulcerative colitis, these symptoms often come and go. You may have times when you have no symptoms, followed by periods where you have symptoms.
What causes IBD?
It is not yet clear what causes Crohn’s disease and gastrointestinal ulcers. These diseases seem to be passed on to families, which means that genes play a role. Many researchers believe that inflammatory bowel disease is the result of an autoimmune disease. Generally, the immune system protects your body from infection. In people with inflammatory bowel disease, the immune system makes mistakes in eating food, healthy bacteria, and other infections. This triggers the immune system to attack the intestinal cells, leading to a revolt.
How to treat IBD?
Medication, dietary changes, and sometimes surgery can treat IBD. The goal of treatment is to eliminate symptoms, prevent further complications and future outbreaks, and possibly cure burns. The doctor may recommend:
Anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce inflammation. immunosuppressive agents that prevent the immune system from causing inflammation. Biologic agents block proteins that cause inflammation nutritional therapy that gives the intestines a chance to heal. Doctors can prescribe antibiotics to prevent or treat infections. People with Inflammatory bowel disease should always check with their doctor before going for anti-diarrhea medication. Because some medicines take more time to fight infections, you must test your child for TB and give all the recommended vaccines before starting treatment.
How can we prevent or avoid inflammatory bowel diseases?
We cannot prevent IBD, but there are lifestyle changes you can make to reduce symptoms. So, the best thing anyone can do is that take good care of yourself. It is important to eat healthy food. Depending on symptoms, your doctor might ask you to reduce the amount of fiber and dairy products in your diet. It may also be necessary to reduce or avoid caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated beverages. In addition to eating well, you need sufficient rest and regular exercise. It is also important that you learn to manage stress in your life. Your intestinal disorder increases when you are upset about the things that happen at home or work.
If you have inflammatory bowel disease, you are at high risk of colon cancer. So, talk to your doctor about starting the colon cancer screening and testing. Consulting a healthcare professional is essential to ensure suitable treatment methods and prevention. IBD shows relapse and triggers a course of adverse effects on both the physical and mental health of IBD patients. Scientists made great efforts in the last few years, but limited drugs are currently available in the management of IBD. Clinically, there is a strong need for new drugs for the treatment of IBD with better performance and lower side effects. However, this review focuses on the drug discovery process for anti-IBD agents, aims to introduce the common features of IBD, and systematically summarizes the latest advances in baptismal candidates with small molecules and natural products that promise Vivo for IBD. Also read: Managing High cholesterol and Calorie uptake