OMICS is basically a collection of molecules that make you. It is the collection of various biological terms who has the suffix ‘omics’. Genomics, metagenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics. Michael Synder, professor, and chair of genetics at Stanford University explained that it is DNA, proteins, and all your metabolites. Collective characterization of biological molecules that translates into a function, structure, or dynamics of organisms is the aim of Omics.
A variety of RNAs in a cell, such as non-coding RNAs, mRNA’s, small RNA’s, etc. are called transcriptomics. Transcriptomic analysis aims to detect which gene is expressed in the examined sample. This is possible by the identification of genes differentially expressed in different conditions. This leads us to further understanding of the genes associated with that condition.
In the future, this subfield can prove very beneficial for personalized medicine. For Example, Transcriptomics data analyzes the risk of breast cancer. It helps the researchers understand the reactions to infections and their treatments.
This second step happens with the help of proteins in the body/cell. These proteins receive the transcript data from mRNA and process it further. Proteins can be different from cell to cell and can also change with time. The goal of the Proteome study is to understand the functional relevance of proteins in the cell. It also aims to find how information flows within the body through protein pathways. Through proteomes, researchers want to find the mechanism of action of bioactive molecules and biomarkers of diseases.
This is the most complex physically as well as chemically than any other ‘omics’. It is one of the final steps of gene transcription. Changes in metabolites clearly show the changes in proteome and transcriptome.
Both environmental and genetic influences on a disease or a treatment can be determined through metabolomics. Thus, in the future, it can have a great impact on precision medicine and drug development.
The future of OMICS
In the last few decades, the treatment of any disease is generally based on the ‘one drug fits all’ model. But every individual can react to treatment differently. Instead of considering the conditions of disease as the center of treatment and categorizing the patients, gene makeup will be beneficial and decisive in the future.
Right now, this type of treatment is mostly limited to genetic analysis. But in the future, the study of all the OMICS, like transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, can play a vital role in medicine as they can find the individual patient’s response to disease as well as the treatment. The research on the OMICS is still in the process, and we don’t exactly know how much time it will take for OMICS methods to be widespread but it is considered less than a decade away from completely understanding the OMICS.
Omics can play a vital role in the treatment of dangerous diseases like cancer, heart diseases, and many more. The future of medicine can achieve great heights with the help of studying Omics.
The massive amount of data related to OMICS and the ability to process it have accelerated in the last few years. The amount of data is so much that researchers cannot get a holistic overview of the OMICS.
In future there can be held a grand test of OMICS, similar as Grand test of physics to show the interconnection of OMES between diseases and conditions of patients. It would be exclusive to find such a technology that would demonstrate an entire lifecycle of a disease.
But for tools like this, another factor that needs to be boosted is Artificial Intelligence. Jun Wang, CEO of iCarbonX has already launched an initiative for OMICS, AI companies, and biotechnology companies to work together.
A joint initiative by BGI and Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences and the International Rice Research Institute started a 3000 rice genomes project. They analyzed genetic variations, population structure and diversity of 3010 Asian cultivated rice. 32 million high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and insertion and deletion of nucleotides into genomic DNA were obtained in the research. The groups found in the research, O. sativa Xian, O. sativa Geng, are milestones in agricultural research.
Research on OMICS can bring hope to millions of people worldwide having rare diseases. With a proper analysis and research Omics can help find d research the medical solutions which are unthinkable to date. Omics are the positive future of precisive medicine.